In early pregnancy, the typical symptoms are bright red bleeding and lower abdominal pain. Abdominal pain is usually crampy in nature and is due to womb contractions, similar to a “mini-labour”. If the neck of the womb remains closed, this is called a threatened miscarriage and may resolve completely and leave the pregnancy unharmed. Occasionally however, the neck of the womb dilates (or opens) and the pregnancy is expelled. If everything is expelled, no further intervention is necessary; this is called a complete miscarriage. Sometimes, pregnancy products remain in the womb and this is called an incomplete miscarriage. These small pregnancy remnants may be passed spontaneously or may require removal, either using medication or surgery. The latter is commonly referred to as a D&C (for Dilatation and Curettage). In some cases, a pregnancy stops developing without producing any signs such as bleeding. These so-called missed miscarriages are often identified incidentally when an ultrasound is performed to date the pregnancy.